For chromatography education, view Regis Technologies' always growing list of Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) literature references. 
  1. Pidgeon, C.; Venkataram, U.V. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography: supports composed of membrane lipids. Anal. Biochem. 1989, Vol.176, 36-47.
  2. Markovich, R.J.; Stevens, J.M.; Pidgeon, C. Fourier transform infrared assay of membrane lipids immobilized to silica: leaching and stability of immobilized artificial membrane-bonded phases. Anal. Biochem. 1989,  Vol.182, 237-44.
  3. Stevens, J.M.; Markovich, R.J.; Pidgeon, C. Characterization of immobilized artificial membrane HPLC columns using deoxy nucleotides as model compounds. BioChromatography 1989, Vol. 4, 192-205.
  4. Pidgeon, C. Immobilized artificial membrane. U.S. Patent 1990, 931,498. 
  5. Pidgeon, C. Solid phase membrane mimetics: immobilized artificial membranes. Enzyme MicrobTechnol 1990, Vol. 12, 149-50.
  6. Pidgeon, C. Method for solid membrane mimetics. U.S. Patent 4,927,879 1990. 
  7. Markovich, R.J.; Qui, X.X.; Nichols, D.E.; Pidgeon, C.; Invergo, B.; Alvarez, F.M. Silica subsurface amine effect on the chemical stability and chromatographic properties of end-capped immobilized artificial membrane surfaces. Anal. Chem. 1991, Vol. 63, 1851-60.
  8. Pidgeon, C.; Stevens, J.; Otto, S.; Jefcoate, C.; Marcus, C. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography: rapid purification of functional membrane proteins. Anal. Biochem. 1991, Vol. 194, 163-73.
  9. Pidgeon, C.; Marcus, C.; Alvarez, F. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography: surface chemistry and applications. presented at Appl. Enzyme Biotechnol., [Proc. Tex. A&M Univ., IUCCP Symp.], 9th, 1991, 201-20.
  10. Chae, W.G.; Luo, C.; Rhee, D.M.; Lombardo, C.R.; Low, P.; Pidgeon, C. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. Initial studies using monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine as a detergent for solubilizing and purifying membrane proteins. Recent Adv. Phytochem. 1991, Vol. 25, 149-74.
  11. Otto, S.; Bhattacharyya. K.K.; Jefcoate, C. R. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in rat adrenal, ovary, and testis microsomes is catalyzed by the same novel cytochrome P450 (P450RAP). Endocrinology 1992, Vol. 131, 3067-76.
  12. Chui, W.K.; Wainer, I.W. Enzyme-based high-performance liquid chromatography supports as probes of enzyme activity and inhibition: the immobilization of trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin on an immobilized artificial membrane high-performance liquid chromatography support. Anal. Biochem. 1992, Vol. 201, 237-45.
  13. Qui, X.; Pidgeon, C. A phosphorus-31 NMR study of immobilized artificial membrane surfaces: structure and dynamics of immobilized phospholipids. J. Phys. Chem. 1993, Vol. 97, 12399-407.
  14. Alebic-Kolbah, T.; Wainer, I.W. Microsomal immobilized-enzyme-reactor for online production of glucuronides in a HPLC column. Chromatographia 1993, Vol. 37, 608-12.
  15. Kaliszan, R., Kaliszan, A. and Wainer, I.W. (1993) Deactivated hydrocarbonaceous silica and immobilized artificial membrane stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of hydrophobicities of organic bases: relationship to Log P and CLOGP. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 11, 505-11.
  16. Alebic-Kolbah, T.; Wainer, I.W. Enzyme-based high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phases as metabolic reactors. Immobilization of nonsolubilized rat liver microsomes on an immobilized artificial membrane high-performance liquid chromatography support. J. Chromatogr. 1993, Vol. 646, 289-95.
  17. Alvarez, F.M.; Bottom, C.B.; Chikhale, P.; Pidgeon, C. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography: prediction of drug transport across biological barriers. Mol. Interact. Biosep. 1993, 151-67.
  18. Alebic-Kolbah, T.; Wainer, I.W. Application of an enzyme-based stationary phase to the determination of enzyme kinetic constants and types of inhibition. New high-performance liquid chromatographic approach utilizing an immobilized artificial membrane chromatographic support. J. Chromatogr. 1993, Vol. 653, 122-9.
  19. Kaliszan, R. Chemometric analysis of biochromatographic data: implications for molecular pharmacology. Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 1994, Vol. 24, 89-97.
  20. Kaliszan, R.; Nasal, A.; Bucinski, A. Chromatographic hydrophobicity parameter determined on an immobilized artificial membrane column: relationships to standard measures of hydrophobicity and bioactivity. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 1994,  Vol. 29, 163-70.
  21. Pidgeon, C.; Ong, S.; Choi, H.; Liu, H. Preparation of mixed ligand immobilized artificial membranes for predicting drug binding to membranes. Anal. Chem. 1994, Vol. 66, 2701-9.
  22. Ong, S.; Cai, S.J.; Bernal, C.; Rhee, D.; Qui, X.; Pidgeon, C. Phospholipid Immobilization on Solid Surfaces. Anal. Chem. 1994, Vol. 66, 782-92.
  23. Ong, S.; Qui, X.; Pidgeon, C. Solute Interactions with Immobilized Artificial Membranes. J. Phys.Chem. 1994, Vol. 98, 10189-99.
  24. Rhee, D.; Markovich, R.; Chae, W.G.; Qui, X.; Pidgeon, C. Chromatographic surfaces prepared from lysophosphatidylcholine ligands. Anal. Chim. Acta 1994, Vol. 297, 377-86.
  25. Nasal, A.; Radwanska, A.; Osmialowski, K.; Bucinski, A.; Kaliszan, R.; Barker, G.E.; Sun, P.; Hartwick, R.A. Quantitative relationships between the structure of beta-adrenolytic and antihistamine drugs and their retention on an alpha 1-acid glycoprotein HPLC column. Biomed Chromatogr. 1994, Vol. 8, 125-9.
  26. Pidgeon, C.; Ong, S. Predicting drug-membrane interactions. Chemtech 1995, Vol. 25, 38-48.
  27. Radwanska, A.; Frackowiak, T.; Ibrahim, H.; Aubry, A.F.; Kaliszan, R. Chromatographic modelling of interactions between melanin and phenothiazine and dibenzazepine drugs. Biomed Chromatogr 1995, Vol. 9, 233-7.
  28. Sheng, Q.; Schulten, K.; Pidgeon, C. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Immobilized Artificial Membranes. J. Phys. Chem. 1995, Vol. 99, 11018-27.
  29. Pidgeon. C.; Ong, S.; Liu, H.; Qui, X.; Pidgeon, M.; Dantzig, A.H.; Munroe, J.; Hornback, W.J.; Kasher, J.S.; Glunz, L. and et al. IAM chromatography: an in vitro screen for predicting drug membrane permeability. J. Med. Chem. 1995, Vol. 38, 590-4.
  30. Langner, J.; Brandt, B.; Leibelt, S.; Assman, G. One-step separation of a hydrophylic and a lipophilic isoform of the tumor-associated DF3-antigen (CA15-3) with immobilized artificial membrane HPLC (IAM.PC HPLC ). J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 1995, Vol. 14, 293-300.
  31. Ong, S.; Pidgeon, C. Thermodynamics of solute Partitioning into Immobilized Artificial Membranes. Anal. Chem. 1995, Vol. 67, 2119-28.
  32. Ong, S.; Liu, H.; Qui, X.; Bhat, G.; Pidgeon, C. Membrane partition coefficients chromatographically measured using immobilized artificial membrane surfaces. Anal. Chem. 1995, Vol. 67, 755-62.
  33. Nasal, A.; Sznitowska, M.; Bucinski, A.; Kaliszan, R. Hydrophobicity parameter from high-performance liquid chromatography on an immobilized artificial membrane column and its relationship to bioactivity. J. Chromatogr. A 1995,  Vol. 692, 83-9.
  34. Kaliszan, R.; Nasal, A.; Turowski, M.; Radwanska, A.; Bober, L. Combination of biochromatography and chemometrics: A new research strategy in molecular pharmacology and drug design. presented at Int. Symp. Chromatogr., 35th Anniv. Res. Group Liq. Chromatogr. Japan, 1995, 651-62.
  35. Cai, S.J.; McAndrew, R.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Chapman, K.D.; Pidgeon, C. Rapid purification of cotton seed membrane-bound N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine synthase by immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 1995, Vol. 696, 49-62.
  36. Liu, H.L.; Ong, S.W.; Glunz, L.; Pidgeon, C. (1995) Predicting Drug Membrane Interactions by HPLC Structural Requirements Of Chromatographic Surfaces. Anal. Chem. 1995, Vol. 67, 3550-3557.
  37. Cohen, D.E.; Leonard, M.R. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography: a rapid and accurate HPLC method for predicting bile salt-membrane interactions. J.Lipid Res. 1995, Vol. 36, 2251-60.
  38. Kaliszan, R.; Nasal, A.; Turowski, M.; Debont, T.; Daenens, P.; Tytgat, J. Quantitative Structure Retention Relationships In the Examination Of the Topography Of the Binding Site Of Antihistamine Drugs On Alpha(1) Acid Glycoprotein: An Improved Fractionation and Fast Screening Method For the Identification Of New and Selective Neurotoxins. Journal of Chromatography 1996, Vol. 722, 25-32.
  39. Barbato, F.; Larotonda, M.I.; Quaglia, F. Chromatographic indices determined on an immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) column as descriptors of lipophilic and polar interactions of 4-phenyldihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers with biomembranes. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 1996, Vol. 31, 311-318.
  40. Bernal, C.; Pidgeon, C. Affinity purification of phospholipase A(2) on immobilized artificial membranes containing and lacking the glycerol backbone. J. Chromatogr. 1996, Vol. 731, 139-151.
  41. Ong, S.W.; Liu, H.L.; Pidgeon, C. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography - measurements of membrane partition coefficient and predicting drug membrane permeability. J. Chromatogr. 1996, Vol. 728, 113-128.
  42. Leone-Bay, A.; Ho, K.K.; Agarwal, R.; Baughman, R.A.; Chaudhary, K.; DeMorin, F.; Genoble, L.; McInnes, C.; Lercara, C.; et al. 4-[4-[(2-Hydroxybenzoyl)amino]butyric acid as a novel oral delivery agent for recombinant human growth hormone. J. Med. Chem. 1996, Vol. 39(13), 2571-2578.
  43. Leone-Bay, A.*; Ho, K.; Agarwal, R.; Baughman, R.A.; Chaudhary, K.; DeMorin, F.; Genoble, L.; McInnes, C.; Lercara, C.; Milstein, S.; O'Toole, D.; Sarubbi, D.; Variano, B.; Paton, D.R. 4-[4-(2-Hydroxybenzoyl)aminophenyl]butyric Acid as a Novel Oral Delivery Agent for Recombinant Human Growth Hormone. J. Med. Chem. 1996, Vol. 39, 2571-2578.
  44. Marcello, J.; Eddy, E.P.; Smith, P. L.; Cheng, H.Y.; Mitchell, R.C.; Lee, C.P. Evaluation of immobilized artificial membrane technology to predict blood brain barrier permeability. Book of Abstracts, 211th ACS National Meeting, New Orleans, La. 1996, March 24-28.
  45. Leone-Bay, A.; Ho, K.K.; Sarubbi, D.; Milstein, S.; Agarwal, R.; McInnes, C.; Baughman, R.A.; Wang, N.F.; Lercara, C.; et al. (1996) -(4-Salicyloylaminophenyl)butyric acid as a novel oral delivery agent for recombinant human growth hormone. Book of Abstracts, 211th ACS National Meeting, New Orleans, La. 1996, March 24-28.
  46. Pidgeon, C.; Cai, S.J.,; Bernal, C. Mobile phase effects on membrane protein elution during immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 1996, Vol. 721(2), 213-30
  47. Abraham, M.; Chadha, H.S.; Letao, R.A.E.; Mitchell, R.C.; Lambert, W.J.; Kaliszan, R.; Nasal, A.; Haber, P. Determination of solute lipophilicity, as log P(octanol and log P(alkane using (styrene-divinylbenzene and immobilized artificial membrane stationary phases in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. 1997, Vol. 766(1 + 2), 35-47.
  48. Leone-Bay, A.; Paton, D.; Freeman, J.; Lercara, C.; O'Toole, D.; Rivera, T.; Rosada, C.; Harris, E.; Baughman, R. (1997) Acylated non- a-amino acids as novel agents for the oral delivery of therapeutic levels of USP heparin. Book of Abstracts, 213th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco 1997, April 13-17.
  49. Salminen, T.; Pulli, A.; Taskinen, J. Relationship between immobilized artificial membrane chromatographic retention and the brain penetration of structurally diverse drugs. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 1997, Vol. 15(4), 469-477.
  50. Barbato, F.; La Rotonda, M.I.; Quaglia, F. Interactions of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs with phospholipids: comparison between octanol/buffer partion coefficients and chromatographic indexes on immobilized artificial membranes. J. Pharm. Sci. 1997, Vol. 86(2), 225-229.
  51. Yang, C.Y.; Cai, S.J.; Liu, H.; Pidgeon, C. Immobilized artificial membranes - screens for drug-membrane interactions. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 1997, Vol. 23(1-3), 229-256.
  52. Barton, P.; Davis, A. M.; McCarthy, D. J.; Webborn, P. Drug-phospholipid Interactions. 2. Predicting the Sites of Drug Distribution Using n-Octanol/Water and Membrane/Water Distribution Coefficients. J. Pharm. Sci. 1997, Vol. 86(9), 1034-1039.
  53. Wainer, W. I.; Johnson, V. D.; Wahnon, D.; Sotolongo, V. On-line High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Immobilized Enzyme Reactors for Synthesis of Stereochemically Pure Compounds. ChimicaOggi 1997, Vol. 15, 45-48.
  54. Turowski, M.; Kaliszan R. Keratin immobilized on silica as a new stationary phase for chromatographic modeling of skin permeation. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 1997, Vol. 15(9-10), 1325-33.
  55. Liu, H.; Cohen, D. E.; Pidgeon, C. Single Step Purification of Rat Liver Aldolase Using Immobilized Artificial Membrane Chromatography. J.Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Sci. Appl. 1997, Vol. 703(1+2), 53-62.
  56. Zhang, Y.; Xiao, Y.; Kellar; Wainer, I. Immobilized Nicotinic Receptor Stationary Phase for Online Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Drug-Receptor Affinities. Anal. Biochem. 1998, Vol. 263, Article Number AB982828.
  57. Leone-Bay, A.; Paton, D.R.; Freeman, J.; Lercara, C.; O’Toole, D.; Gschneidner, D.; Wang, E.; Harris, E.; Rosado, C.; Rivera, T.; DeVincent, A.; Tai, M.; Mercogliano, F.; Agarwal, R.; Leipold, H.; Baughman, R.A. Synthesis and Evaluation of Compounds that Facilitate the Gastrointestinal Absorption of Heparin J. Med. Chem. 1998, Vol. 41:7, 1163-1171.
  58. Masucci, J.A.; Caldwell, G.W.; Foley, J.P. A Comparison of the Retention Behavior of b-Blockers Using Immobilized Artificial Membrane Chromatography and Lysophospholipid Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A 1998, Vol. 810, 95-103.
  59. Stewart, B.H.; Chung, F.Y.; Tait, B.; Blankley, C.J.; Chan, O.H. Hydrophobicity of HIV Protease Inhibitors by Immobilized Artificial Membrane Chromatography: Application and Significance to Drug Transport PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH, Vol. 15, Number 9, September 1998, #980097.
  60. Barbato Francesco; CappelloBrunella; Miro Agnese; La Rotonda Maria Immacolata; QuagliaFabiana. Chromatographic Indexes on Immobilzed Artificial Membranes for the Prediction of Transdermal Transport of Drugs. Farmaco 1998, Vol. 53(10,11), 655-661.
  61. Stewart, B.H.; Chan, O.H. Use of Immobilzed Artificial Membrane Chromatography for Drug Transport Applications. J.Pharm. Sci. 1998, Vol. 87(12), 1471-1478.
  62. Reichel, A.; Begley D.J. Potential of Immobilized Artificial Membranes for Predicting Drug Penetration Across the Blood-Brain Barrier. Pharm. Res. 1998, Vol. 15(8), 1270-1274.
  63. Ducarme, A.; Neuwels, M.; Goldstein, S.; Massingham, R. IAM Retention and Blood Brain Barrier Penetration. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 1998, Vol. 33(3), 215-223.
  64. Valko, K.; Plass, M.; Bevan, C.; Reynolds, D.; Abraham, M. H. Relationships Between the Chromatographic Hydrophobicity and Solute Descriptors Obtained by using several Reversed-phase, Diol, Cyclodextrin and Immobilized Artificial Membrane-bonded High-performance Liquid Chromatography Columns. J. Chromatogr., 1998, Vol. A. 797(1+2), 41-55.
  65. Caldwell G.W.; Masucci J.A.; Evangelisto, M.; White R. Evaluation of the Immobilized Artificial Membrane Phosphatidylcholine. Drug Discovery Column for High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Screening of Drug-membrane Interactions. J. Chromatogr. 1998, Vol. A. 800(2), 161-169.
  66. On-line chromatographic analysis of drug¬receptor interactions. Zhang, Y. and Wainer, I.W. American Laboratory, December 1999. 9912
  67. Ottiger C, Wunderli-Allenspach H. Immobilized artificial membrane (IAM)-HPLC for partition studies of neutral and ionized acids and bases in comparison with the liposomal partition system. PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH ,16: (5) 643-650 MAY 1999
  68. Demare, S.; Roy, D.; Legendre, J. Y. Factors Gonerning the Retention of Solutes on Chromatographic Immobilized Artificial Membranes: Application to Anti-inflammotory and Analgesic Drugs. J. Liq. Chromatogr. Relat. Technol. 1999, Vol. 22(17), 2675-2688.
  69. Pagliara, A.; Reist, M.; Geinoz, S.; Carrupt, P.A.; Testa, B. Evaluation and prediction of drug permeation. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1999, Vol. 51(12), 1339–57. 
  70. Valko, K.; Du Chau, M.; Christopher, D.; Reynolds, D.P.; Abraham M.H. Rapid-Gradient HPLC Method for Measuring Drug Interactions with Immobilized Artificial Membrane: Comparison with Other Lipophilicity Measures. J. Pharm. Sci. 2000, Vol. 89(8), 1085-1096.
  71. Kepczynska, E.; Bojarski J.; Haber, P.; Kaliszan R. Retention of Barbituric Acid Derivatives on Immobilized Artificial Membrane Stationary Phase and its Correlation with Biological Activity. Biomed. Chromatogr. 2000, Vol. 14(4), 256-260.
  72. EscuderGilabert L.; Sagrado S.; Villanueva, Camanas R. M.; Medina, Hernandez M. J. Development of Predictive Retention-activity Relationships Models of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs by Micellar Liquid Chromatography: Comparison with Immobilized Artificial Membrane Columns. J. Chromatogr., B: Biomed. Sci. Appl. 2000, Vol. 740(1), 59-70.
  73. Amato, Marzia, Francesco Barbato,*PatriziaMorrica, FabianaQuaglia, Maria I. La Rotonda Interactions between Amines and Phospholipids: A Chromatographic Study on Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) Stationary Phases at Various pH Values, Helvetica ChimicaActa, No. 10, 2000.
  74. Barbato, F.; Quaglia, M.T.; Quercid, M.I.; La Rotonda. Enantioselective retention of 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers on human serum albumin and (alpha)1-acid glycoprotein HPLC columns: Relationships with different scales of lipophilicity. Helv. Chim. Acta. 2000, Vol. 83(4), 767–76. 
  75. Testa, B.; Crivori, P.; Reist, M.; Carrupt, P.A. The influence of lipophilicity on the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs: Concepts and examples. Perspect Drug Discov Des. 2000, Vol. 19, 179–211. 
  76. Lili Lu, Fabio Leonessa, Robert Clarke, and Irving W. Wainer Competitive and Allosteric Interactions in Ligand Binding to P-glycoprotein as Observed on an Immobilized P-glycoprotein Liquid Chromatographic Stationary Phase MolPharmacol Vol. 59, Issue 1, 62-68, (2001).
  77. Genty, M.; González, G.; Clere, C.; Desangle-Gouty, V.; Legendre, J.Y. Determination of the passive absorption through the rat intestine using chromatographic indices and molar volume. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2001, Vol. 12, 223-229.
  78. I.J. Hidalgo, Assessing the Absorption of New Pharmaceuticals Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 1, Number 5, 2001. Pp.385-401.
  79. Bohets, H.; Annaert, P.; Mannens, G.; Van Beijsterveldt, L.; Anciaux, K.; Verboven, P.; et al. Strategies for absorption screening in drug discovery and development. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2001, Vol. 1(5), 367–83. 
  80. Markoglou, N.; Wainer, I.W. On-line synthesis utilizing immobilized enzyme reactors based upon immobilized dopamine beta-hydroxylase. J. Chromatogr. B, 2002, Vol.766, Issue 1, 145-151.
  81. Taillardat-Bertschinger, A.; Marca Martinet, C.A. Molecular Factors Influencing Retention on Immobilized Artificial Membranes (IAM) Compared to Partitioning in Liposomes and n-Octanol. Pharmaceutical Research, 2002, Vol. 19, No. 6.
  82. Baynham, M.T.; Patel, S.; Moaddel, R.; Wainer, I.R. Multidimensional on-line screening for ligands to the a3ß4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor using an immobilized nicotinic receptor liquid chromatographic stationary phase. J. Chromatogr. B, 2002, Vol. 772, Issue 1, 155-161. 
  83. Cimpean, D.M.; Poole C.F. Systematic search for surrogate chromatographic models of biopartitioning processes. Analyst. 2002, Vol. 127(6), 724–9. 
  84. Darvas, F.; Keseru, G.; Papp, A.; Dorman, G. Urge, L.; Krajcsi, P. In Silico and Ex silico ADME approaches for drug discovery. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2002, Vol. 2(12), 1287–304. 
  85. Liu, XY.; Nakamura, C.; Yang, Q.; Kamo, N.; Miyake, J. Immobilized liposome chromatography to study drug-membrane interactions: Correlation with drug absorption in humans. J Chromatogr A. 2002, Vol. 961(1), 113–8. 
  86. Dash, A.K.; Elmquist, W.F. Separation methods that are capable of revealing blood-brain barrier permeability. J. Chromatogr. B, Anal Technol, Biomed Life Sci. 2003, 797(1–2), 241–54.
  87. Dzieduszycka, M.; Martelli, S.; Arciemiuk, M.; Bontemps-Gracz, M.M.; Edward, A.K. Effect of Modification of 6-[(Aminoalkyl)amino]-7H-benzo[e]-perimidin-7-ones on Their Cytotoxic Activity Toward Sensitive and Multidrug Resistant Tumor Cell Lines. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2002, Vol. 10, Issue 4,1025-1035. 
  88. Agnes Taillardat-Bertschinger, Pierre-Alain Carrupt, Francesco Barbato and Bernard Testa. "Immobilized Artificial Membrane HPLC in Drug Research", Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 46(5), 654-665, Feb, (2003).
  89. Beigi, Farideh; Wainer, Irving;.Syntheis of Immobilized G Protein-Coupled Receptor Chromatographic Stationary Phases: Characterization of Immobilized : and k Opioid Receptors. Anal. Chem, 75, 4480-4485, (2003).
  90. High throughput artificial membrane permeability assay for blood-brain barrier.Di L, Kerns EH, Fan K, McConnell OJ, Carter GT. Eur J Med Chem. 2003;38(3):223–32. 
  91. Chromatographic retention parameters in medicinal chemistry and molecular pharmacology.Nasal A, Siluk D, Kaliszan R. Curr Med Chem 2003;10(5):381–426. 
  92. Fast gradient HPLC method to determine compounds binding to human serum albumin. Relationships with octanol/water and immobilized artificial membrane lipophilicity.Valko K, Nunhuck S, Bevan C, Abraham MHMH, Reynolds DPDP. J Pharm 2003;92(11):2236–48. 
  93. Potential of immobilized artificial membrane chromatography for lipophilicity determination of arylpropionic acid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 33, Issue 2, 19 September 2003, Pages 137-144. FabiennePehourcq, Christian Jarry, Bernard Bannwarth
  94. Hydrophobic derivatives of 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucitol-6-phosphate: A new type of d-Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase inhibitors with antifungal action. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8, April 2003, Pages 1653-1662. Agnieszka M Janiak, Maria Hoffmann, Maria J Milewska, SlawomirMilewski
  95. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,7-Dihydro-3H-dibenzo[de,h]cinnoline-3,7-dione derivatives, a novel group of anticancer agents active on a multidrug resistant cell line. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 4, 20 February 2003, Pages 561-572. Barbara Stefanska, MalgorzataArciemiuk, Maria M Bontemps-Gracz, Maria Dzieduszycka, Agnieszka Kupiec, SanteMartelli, Edward Borowski
  96. El-Gendy, Ahmed M., Adejere, Adeboyeh, Membrane Permeability Related Physiochemical Properties of a Novel gamma-Secretase Inhibitor., International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 280(1-2), 47-55. (2004)
  97. Barbato, F., diMartino, G., Grumetto, L., La Rotondo, M.I., Prediction of Drug-Membrane Interactions by IAM-HPLC, Effects of Different Phospholipid Stationary Phases on the Partition of Bases., European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(4), 261-269. (2004)
  98. Markoglou,Nektaria; Hsuesh, Ruth; Wainer, Irving. Immobilized Enzyme Reactors Based Upon the Flavoenzymes Monoamine Oxidase A and B . Journal of Chromatography, B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 804(2), 295-302. (2004)
  99. Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack; Wanier, Irving Interaction of Noncompetitive Inhibitors with an Immobilized en "3$4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Investigated by Affinity Chromatography, Quantitative-Structure Activity Relationship Analysis, and Molecular Docking. J. Med. Chem. 47, 4008-4021, (2004)
  100. Valko, K. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography based measurements of lipophilicity to model biological distribution. J. Chromatogr. A. 1037, (1-2), 299-310 (2004)
  101. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides incorporating adamantyl moieties with strong anticonvulsant activity. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 10, 15 May 2004, Pages 2717-2726. Marc A Ilies, Bernard Masereel, StéphanieRolin, Andrea Scozzafava, Gheorghe Câmpeanu, Valentin Ci^mpeanu, Claudiu T Supuran
  102. FabiennePéhourcq, Myriam Matoga, Bernard Bannwarth. Diffusion of arylpropionate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid: a quantitative structure activity relationship approach. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology. Volume 18: Issue 1 (2004)
  103. Drug permeation in biomembranes: In vitro and in silico prediction and influence of physicochemical properties. Mälkiä A, Murtomäki L, Urtti A, Kontturi K. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004;23(1):13–47. 
  104. On-line screening of conformationally constrained nicotines and anabasines for agonist activity at the a3ß4- and a4ß2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using immobilized receptor-based liquid chromatographic stationary phases. Journal of Chromatography B,Volume 813, Issues 1–2, 25 December 2004, Pages 235-240. Ruin Moaddel, Krzysztof Jozwiak, Rika Yamaguchi, Christopher Cobello, Kevin Whittington, Tarun K. Sarkar, SankarBasak, Irving W. Wainer
  105. Qualitative assessment of IC50 values of inhibitors of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor using a single chromatographic experiment and multivariate cluster analysis. Journal of Chromatography B, Volume 819, Issue 1, 5 May 2005, Pages 169-174. Krzysztof Jozwiak, Ruin Moaddel, Rika Yamaguchi, SaranganRavichandran, Jack R. Collins, Irving W. Wainer
  106. Moaddel, R; Yamaguchi, R; Ho, P.C.; Patel, S.; Hsu, C.P.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Wainer, I.W.; Development and Characterization of an Immobilized Human Organic Transporter Based Liquid Chromatographic Stationary Phase.. Journal of Chromatography B, (Available online at www.sciencedirect.com), (2005)
  107. Yen, T.E., Agatonovic-Kustrin, S., Evans, A.M., Nation, R.L., Ryand, J. Prediction of drug absorption based on immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography separation and calculated molecular descriptors. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Vol. 38, No. 3, pages 472-478 (2005) DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2005.01.040
  108. D. Vrakas, D. Hadjipavlou-Litina, A.Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Retention of substituted coumarins using Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) Chromatography: A comparative study with n-Octanol Partitioning and Reversed-Phase HPLC and TLC, J. Pharm.Biomed. Anal. 39, 908-913 (2005)
  109. Profiling drug membrane transport via immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. Sun, Jin; Zhang, Tian-Hong; He, Zhong-Gui. Department of Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Peop. Rep. China. Current Pharmaceutical Analysis (2005), 1(3), 273-282. Abstract
  110. Retention of substituted coumarins using immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography: A comparative study with n-octanol partitioning and reversed-phase HPLC and TLC. Vrakas, Demetris; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2005), 39(5), 908-913. Publisher: Elsevier B.V., CODEN: JPBADA ISSN: 0731-7085. Journal written in English. CAN 144:27763 AN 2005:1112505 CAPLUS (Copyright (C) 2006 ACS on SciFinder (R))
  111. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and its application in profiling the drug membrane transport. Sun, Jin; Zhang, Tianhong; He, Zhonggui. Department of Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Phaaeutical University, Shenyang, Peop. Rep. China. Sepu (2005), 23(4), 378-383.
  112. Exploration of orally available calpain inhibitors: Peptidyl a-ketoamides containing an amphiphile at P3 site. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 13, Issue 14, 15 July 2005, Pages 4473-4484. Yoshihisa Shirasaki, Hiroyuki Miyashita, Masazumi Yamaguchi, Jun Inoue, Masayuki Nakamura
  113. Characterization of immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) and XTerra columns by means of chromatographic models. Lazaro, Elisabet; Rafols, Clara; Roses, Marti. Departament de QuimicaAnalitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Journal of Chromatography, A (2005), 1081(2), 163-173.
  114. Modeling Caco-2 permeability of drugs using immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and physicochemical descriptors. Chan, E. C. Y.; Tan, W. L.; Ho, P. C.; Fang, L. J. The Capricorn, S*BIO Pte Ltd., Singapore, Singapore. Journal of Chromatography, A (2005), 1072(2), 159-168.
  115. In vitro method for determining drug permeability using immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. Guo, Junan; He, Ping; Qu, Anthony Yi; Yang, Steve Yong-tao; Anik, Shabbir. (Can.). U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2005),
  116. Immobilised artificial membrane chromatography coupled with molecular probing: Mimetic system for studying lipid-calcium interactions in nutritional mixtures. Hernando, Vanessa; Rieutord, Andre; Pansu, Robert; Brion, Francoise; Prognon, Patrice. Groupe de ChimieAnalytique de Paris Sud, EA 3343, Laboratoire de ChimieAnalytique, Faculte de Pharmacie, Chatenay-Malabry, Fr. Journal of Chromatography, A (2005), 1064(1), 75-84. retention. Consequently, it was demonstrated that IAM appears as a suitable model to get a better insight on the lipid-calcium interactions taking place in nutritional mixts.
  117. Synthesis and biological activity of tricyclic aryloimidazo-, pyrimido-, and diazepinopurinediones. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 14, Issue 21, 1 November 2006, Pages 7258-7281. Anna Drabczynska, Christa E. Müller, Svenja K. Lacher, Britta Schumacher, Janina Karolak-Wojciechowska, Antony Nasal, Piotr Kawczak, Olga Yuzlenko, ElzbietaPekala, KatarzynaKiec-Kononowicz
  118. The use of immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography for determination of lipophilicity. Barbato, Francesco. Dipartimento di ChimicaFarmaceutica e Tossicologica, UniversitadegliStudi di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy. Current Computer-Aided Drug Design (2006), 2(4), 341-352.
  119. Quantitative structure-retention relationship studies using immobilized artificial membrane chromatography I: Amended linear solvation energy relationships with the introduction of a molecular electronic factor. Li, Jie; Sun, Jin; Cui, Shengmiao; He, Zhonggui. Department of Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Peop. Rep. China. Journal of Chromatography, A (2006), 1132(1-2), 174-182.
  120. Method for measuring orally administered drug absorption into intestine through measuring retention time of drug in immobilized artificial membrane phosphatidylcholine column and method for measuring brain penetration of drug using the same. Yoo, Sun Dong; Shin, Beom Soo; Yun, Chi Ho. (S. Korea). Repub. Korean KongkaeTaehoKongbo (2006)
  121. Chromatographic Estimation of Drug Disposition Properties by Means of Immobilized Artificial Membranes (IAM) and C18 Columns. Lazaro, Elisabet; Rafols, Clara; Abraham, Michael H.; Roses, Marti. Departament de QuimicaAnalitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2006), 49(16), 4861-4870.
  122. Different retention behavior of structurally diverse basic and neutral drugs in immobilized artificial membrane and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography: Comparison with octanol-water partitioning. Vrakas, Demetris; Giaginis, Costas; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Journal of Chromatography, A (2006), 1116(1-2), 158-164. Abstract
  123. Molecular lipophilicity determination of a huperzine series by HPLC: Comparison of C18 and IAM stationary phases. Darrouzain, Francois; Dallet, Philippe; Dubost, Jean-Pierre; Ismaili, Lhassane; Pehourcq, Fabienne; Bannwarth, Bernard; Matoga, Myriam; Guillaume, Yves C. Equipe des Sciences Separatives et Biopharmaceutiques (2SB, EA/3924), Laboratoire de ChimieAnalytique et de ChimieTherapeutique, Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Besancon, Fr. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2006), 41(1), 228-232.
  124. Rapid screening of blood-brain barrier penetration of drugs using the immobilized artificial membrane phosphatidylcholine column chromatography. Yoon, Chi Ho; Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Beom Soo; Lee, Kang Choon; Yoo, Sun dong. College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Gyeonggi-do, S. Korea. Journal of Biomolecular Screening (2006), 11(1), 13-20.
  125. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography: A useful tool for predicting membrane permeability. Adejare, Adeboye; El-Gendy, Ahmed. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Abstracts of Papers, 231st ACS National Meeting, Atlanta, GA, United States, March 26-30, 2006 (2006), MEDI-211.
  126. Thermodynamic partitioning behavior for solutes into immobilized artificial membrane or an n-octanol/water system. Sun, Jin; Zhang, Tian-Hong; Li, Jie; Mao, Jing-Jing; He, Zhong-Gui. Dep. Biopharmaceutics, Sch. Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical Univ., Shenyang, Peop. Rep. China. GaodengXuexiaoHuaxueXuebao (2006), 27(2), 349-351.
  127. A comparative study of void volume markers in immobilized-artificial-membrane and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Luo, Haibin; Cheng, Yuen-Kit. Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong. Journal of Chromatography, A (2006), 1103(2), 356-361.
  128. Estimation of volume of distribution in humans from high throughput HPLC-based measurements of human serum albumin binding and immobilized artificial membrane partitioning. By Hollosy Ferenc; Valko Klara; Hersey Anne; Nunhuck Shenaz; Keri Gyorgy; Bevan Chris. From Journal of medicinal chemistry (2006), 49(24), 6958-71.
  129. Estimation of phospholipophilicity of 1-[3-(arylpiperazin-1-yl)-propyl]-pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives on immobilized artificial membrane stationary phase and its correlation with biological data. By KuligKatarzyna; Malawska Barbara. From Biomedical chromatography : BMC (2006), 20(11), 1129-35.
  130. Quantitative structure-retention relationship studies using immobilized artificial membrane chromatography I: amended linear solvation energy relationships with the introduction of a molecular electronic factor. By Li Jie; Sun Jin; Cui Shengmiao; He Zhonggui. From Journal of chromatography. A (2006), 1132(1-2), 174-82.
  131. Estimation of phospholipophilicity of 1-[3-(arylpiperazin-1-yl)-propyl]-pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives on immobilized artificial membrane stationary phase and its correlation with biological data. By Kulig, Katarzyna; Malawska, Barbara. From Biomedical Chromatography (2006), 20(11), 1129-1135.
  132. Monohydroxyflavones: Correlation of 1-Octanol/Water Partition Coefficients with Affinity for Phospholipid Surfaces. By Okoso-amaa, Ekua; Rummel, Jeremy D.; Tseng, Jen-Te; Wommack, Cody L.; Whaley, William L. From Abstracts, 62nd Southwest Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Houston, TX, United States, October 19-22 (2006), SRM-391.
  133. Quantitative structure-retention relationship studies using immobilized artificial membrane chromatography I: Amended linear solvation energy relationships with the introduction of a molecular electronic factor. By Li, Jie; Sun, Jin; Cui, Shengmiao; He, Zhonggui. From Journal of Chromatography, A (2006), 1132(1-2), 174-182.
  134. Molecule-based techniques for the detection of insecticide resistance in pests. By Cao, Xiaomei; Zhao, Tongyan. From Jishengchong Yu YixueKunchongXuebao (2006), 13(1), 57-63
  135. Is phospholipid-saturated alkyl column a convenient replacement for immobilized-artificial-membrane? By Luo Hai-Bin; Zheng Chuanqi; Cheng Yuen-Kit. From Journal of chromatography. A (2007), 1176(1-2), 100-6.
  136. Relationship between immobilised artificial membrane chromatographic retention and the brain penetration of structurally diverse drugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 15, Issue 4, January 1997, Pages 469-477. TimoSalminen, AnuPulli, Jyrki Taskinen
  137. Structure-brain exposure relationships.Hitchcock SA, Pennington LD. J Med Chem. 2006;49(26):7559–83. 
  138. Rational design of N-alkyl derivatives of 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucitol-6P as antifungal agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Volume 17, Issue 23, 1 December 2007, Pages 6602-6606. Anna Melcer, Izabela Lacka, Iwona Gabriel, Marek Wojciechowski, Beata Liberek, Andrzej Wisniewski, SlawomirMilewski
  139. Characterization of the retention behavior of organic and pharmaceutical drug molecules on an immobilized artificial membrane column with the Abraham model. By Sprunger Laura; Blake-Taylor Brooke H; Wairegi Angeline; Acree William E Jr; Abraham Michael H. From Journal of chromatography. A (2007), 1160(1-2), 235-45.
  140. Relationship between immobilized artificial membrane chromatographic retention and human oral absorption of structurally diverse drugs. By KotechaJignesh; Shah Shailesh; RathodIshwarsinh; SubbaiahGunta. From International journal of pharmaceutics (2007), 333(1-2), 127-35
  141. Investigation of lipophilicity of anticancer-active thioquinoline derivatives. By Bajda Marek; Boryczka Stanislaw; Wietrzyk Joanna; Malawska Barbara. From Biomedical chromatography : BMC (2007), 21(2), 123-31.
  142. Quantitative structure-retention relationship studies with immobilized artificial membrane chromatography II: partial least squares regression. By Li Jie; Sun Jin; He Zhonggui. From Journal of chromatography. A (2007), 1140(1-2), 174-9.
  143. Computational prediction of solubilizers' effect on partitioning. By Hoest Jan; Christensen Inge T; Jorgensen Flemming S; Hovgaard Lars; Frokjaer Sven. From International journal of pharmaceutics (2007), 329(1-2), 46-52.
  144. Is phospholipid-saturated alkyl column a convenient replacement for immobilized-artificial-membrane? By Luo, Hai-Bin; Zheng, Chuanqi; Cheng, Yuen-Kit. From Journal of Chromatography, A (2007), 1176(1-2), 100-106.
  145. Monohydroxyflavones: distribution coefficients and affinities for reverse-phase (C18) and immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) adsorbents. By Whaley, William L.; Tseng, Jen-Te; Rummel, Jeremy D.; Wommack, Cody L. From Natural Product Communications (2007), 2(10), 987-995.
  146. Investigation of the lipophilic behavior of some thiazolidinediones. By Giaginis, Costas; Theocharis, Stamatios; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna From Journal of Chromatography, B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences (2007), 857(2), 181-187.
  147. Diketopiperazines as a tool for the study of transport across the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) and their potential use as BBB-shuttles. By Teixido, Meritxell; Zurita, Esther; Malakoutikhah, Morteza; Tarrago, Teresa; Giralt, Ernest. From Journal of the American Chemical Society (2007), 129(38), 11802-11813.
  148. Characterization of the retention behavior of organic and pharmaceutical drug molecules on an immobilized artificial membrane column with the Abraham model. By Sprunger, Laura; Blake-Taylor, Brooke H.; Wairegi, Angeline; Acree, William E.; Abraham, Michael H. From Journal of Chromatography, A (2007), 1160(1-2), 235-245.
  149. Comparison between immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) HPLC data and lipophilicity in n-octanol for quinolone antibacterial agents. By Barbato, Francesco; Cirocco, Valentina; Grumetto, Lucia; Immacolata La Rotonda, Maria. From European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2007), 31(5), 288-297.
  150. Complex retention behavior of pyrimidines on biomembrane-mimic immobilized-artificial-membrane phase. By Luo, Hai-Bin; Zheng, Chuanqi; Cheng, Yuen-Kit. From Journal of Chromatography, B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences (2007), 853(1-2), 114-122.
  151. Interaction of antioxidant biobasedepicatechin conjugates with biomembrane models. By Lazaro, Elisabet; Castillo, Jose A.; Rafols, Clara; Roses, Marti; Clapes, Pere; Torres, JosepLluis. From Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2007), 55(8), 2901-2905.
  152. Trypsin inhibitors screening by biologically functionalized chromatography with on-line immobilized enzyme. By Liu, Yue Ying; Dai, Rongji; Qu, Feng; Geng, Lina; Deng, Yulin. From Abstracts of Papers, 233rd ACS National Meeting, Chicago, IL, United States, March 25-29, 2007 (2007), COLL-335.
  153. Development and characterization of immobilized human organic anion transporter-based liquid chromatographic stationary phase: hOAT1 and hOAT2. Journal of Chromatography B, Volume 859, Issue 2, 15 November 2007, Pages 267-271. T. Kimura, J. Perry, N. Anzai, J.B. Pritchard, R. Moaddel
  154. Relationship between immobilized artificial membrane chromatographic retention and human oral absorption of structurally diverse drugs. By Kotecha, Jignesh; Shah, Shailesh; Rathod, Ishwarsinh; Subbaiah, Gunta. From International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2007), 333(1-2), 127-135.
  155. Investigation of lipophilicity of anticancer-active thioquinoline derivatives. By Bajda, Marek; Boryczka, Stanislaw; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Malawska, Barbara. From Biomedical Chromatography (2007), 21(2), 123-131.
  156. Quantitative structure-retention relationship studies with immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. By Li, Jie; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui. From Journal of Chromatography, A (2007), 1140(1-2), 174-179.
  157. Computational prediction of solubilizers' effect on partitioning. By Hoest, Jan; Christensen, Inge T.; Jorgensen, Flemming S.; Hovgaard, Lars; Frokjaer, Sven. From International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2007), 329(1-2), 46-52.
  158. Immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. An alternative approach for the assessment of (phospho) lipophilicity and the simulation of biological processes. By Vrakas, Demetris; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna. From Pharmakeutike (2007), 20(3), 83-97.
  159. Current State of the Art in HPLC Methodology for Lipophilicity Assessment of Basic Drugs. A Review. Giaginis C, Tsantili-Kakoulidou A. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol. 2007;31(1):79–96. 
  160. Modern analytical approaches to high-throughput drug discovery.Gómez-Hens A, Aguilar-Caballos MP. TrAC - Trends Anal Chem. 2007;26(3):171–82. 
  161. Quantitative structure-(chromatographic) retention relationships.Héberger K. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1158(1–2):273–305. 
  162. Immobilized P2X2 purinergic receptor stationary phase for chromatographic determination of pharmacological properties and drug screening. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 44, Issue 3, 27 July 2007, Pages 701-710. Cleber A. Trujillo, ParomitaMajumder, Fernando A. Gonzalez, Ruin Moaddel, Henning Ulrich
  163. Partition coefficients of polyphenols for phosphatidylcholine investigated by HPLC with an immobilized artificial membrane column. By Uekusa, Yoshinori; Takeshita, Yuko; Ishii, Takeshi; Nakayama, Tsutomu. From Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry (2008), 72(12), 3289-3292.
  164. Lipophilicity of Substituted Aurones and Related Compounds Measured on Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) and Conventional C8 (MOS) Columns. By Huszar, Monika; Hallgas, Balazs; Idei, Miklos; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Horvath, Aniko; Patonay, Tamas. From Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies (2008), 31(20), 3143-3158.
  165. Uptake and transport of new antiasthmatic compounds by human intestinal Caco-2 cells: correlations with lipophilicity by biopartitioning chromatography. By Gao, K.; Sun, J.; Qiu, F.; Liu, X.; Sun, Y.; Cheng, M.; He, Z.. From Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology (2008), 18(4), 231-237
  166. Retention behavior of neutral and positively and negatively charged solutes on an immobilized-artificial-membrane (IAM) stationary phase. By Liu, Xiangli; Hefesha, Hossam; Scriba, Gerhard; Fahr, Alfred. From Helvetica ChimicaActa (2008), 91(8), 1505-1512.
  167. Alternative measures of lipophilicity: from octanol-water partitioning to immobilized artificial membrane retention. By Giaginis, Costas; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna. From Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2008), 97(8), 2984-3004.
  168. Toward an optimal blood-brain barrier shuttle by synthesis and evaluation of peptide libraries. By Malakoutikhah, Morteza; Teixido, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest. From Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2008), 51(16), 4881-4889.
  169. Prediction of retention indices of drugs based on immobilized artificial membrane chromatography using Projection Pursuit Regression and Local Lazy Regression. By Du, Hongying; Watzl, June; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yao, Xiaojun; Hu, Zhide. From Journal of Separation Science (2008), 31(12), 2325-2333.
  170. Prediction of oral absorption in humans by experimental immobilized artificial membrane chromatography indices and physicochemical descriptors. By Kotecha, Jignesh; Shah, Shailesh; Rathod, Ishwarsinh; Subbaiah, Gunta. From International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2008), 360(1-2), 96-106.
  171. Optimization of dynamic immobilization of trypsin onto IAM. By Li, Hua; Wang, Shanshan; Lin, Zhenguang; Qu, Feng; Geng, Lina; Li, Qin; Deng, Yulin. From HuaxueTongbao (2008), 71(6), 473-476.
  172. QSAR of antiproliferative activity of N-substituted 2-amino-5-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoles in various human cancer cells. By Matysiak, Joanna. From QSAR & Combinatorial Science (2008), 27(5), 607-617.
  173. Magnesium cation effect on passive diffusion of statin molecules: Molecular chromatography approach. By Sarr, FatimataSeydou; Guillaume, Yves Claude; Andre, Claire. From Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2008), 47(3), 651-657.
  174. The role of lipophilicity in determining binding affinity and functional activity for 5-HT2A receptor ligands. By Parker, Matthew A.; Kurrasch, Deborah M.; Nichols, David E. From Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2008), 16(8), 4661-4669
  175. Characterization of the acidity of residual silanol groups in immobilized artificial membranes. By Lazaro, Elisabet; Rafols, Clara; Roses, Marti. From Journal of Chromatography, A (2008), 1182(2), 233-236.
  176. Partition coefficients of polyphenols for phosphatidylcholine investigated by HPLC with an immobilized artificial membrane column. By Uekusa Yoshinori; Takeshita Yuko; Ishii Takeshi; Nakayama Tsutomu. From Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry (2008), 72(12), 3289-92.
  177. Toward an optimal blood-brain barrier shuttle by synthesis and evaluation of peptide libraries. By MalakoutikhahMorteza; TeixidoMeritxell; Giralt Ernest. From Journal of medicinal chemistry (2008), 51(16), 4881-9.
  178. Prediction of oral absorption in humans by experimental immobilized artificial membrane chromatography indices and physicochemical descriptors. By KotechaJignesh; Shah Shailesh; RathodIshwarsinh; SubbaiahGunta. From International journal of pharmaceutics (2008), 360(1-2), 96-106.
  179. Prediction of retention indices of drugs based on immobilized artificial membrane chromatography using Projection Pursuit Regression and Local Lazy Regression. By Du Hongying; Watzl June; Wang Jie; Zhang Xiaoyun; Yao Xiaojun; Hu Zhide. From Journal of separation science (2008), 31(12), 2325-33.
  180. Magnesium cation effect on passive diffusion of statin molecules: molecular chromatography approach. By SarrFatimataSeydou; Guillaume Yves Claude; Andre Claire. From Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis (2008), 47(3), 651-7.
  181. Electrostatic interactions and ionization effect in immobilized artificial membrane retention. A comparative study with octanol-water partitioning. By VrakasDemetris; Giaginis Costas; Tsantili-Kakoulidou Anna. From Journal of chromatography. A (2008), 1187(1-2), 67-78.
  182. Characterization of the acidity of residual silanol groups in immobilized artificial membranes. By Lazaro Elisabet; Rafols Clara; Roses Marti. From Journal of chromatography. A (2008), 1182(2), 233-6.
  183. Screening of tobacco smoke condensate for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands using cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns and missing peak chromatography. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 48, Issue 2, 29 September 2008, Pages 238-246. Alexandre Maciuk, Ruin Moaddel, Jun Haginaka, Irving W. Wainer
  184. Prediction of drug bioavailability in humans using immobilized artificial membrane phosphatidylcholine column chromatography and in vitro hepatic metabolic clearance. By Shin Beom Soo; Yoon Chi Ho; Balthasar Joseph P; Choi Bu Young; Hong Seok Hyun; Kim Hyoung Jun; Lee Jong Bong; Hwang Sang Wook; Yoo Sun Dong. From Biomedical chromatography : BMC (2009), 23(7), 764-9.
  185. The preparation and development of cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns. By Moaddel Ruin; Wainer Irving W. From Nature protocols (2009), 4(2), 197-205.
  186. High throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling in drug discovery. Wan, Hong; Holmen, Anders G. Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening (2009), 12(3), 315-329.
  187. Lipophilicity of some GABAergic phenols and related compounds determined by HPLC and partition coefficients in different systems. Reiner, Gabriela N.; Labuckas, Diana O.; Garcia, Daniel A. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2009), 49(3), 686-691.
  188. New approach to mass spectrometry detection in immobilized artificial-membrane chromatography for predicting permeability in lead optimization programs. Lok, David S.; Blackburn, Chris; Jones, Matthew; Molchanova, Nina; Xu, Ling; Reiser, Kelly. Abstracts of Papers, 238th ACS National Meeting, Washington, DC, United States, August 16-20, 2009 (2009).
  189. Current in vitro and in silico models of blood-brain barrier penetration?: A practical view Cell-based in penetration. Vastag M, Keseru GMCurr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2009;12(1):115–24. 
  190. Prediction of volume of distribution values in human using immobilized artificial membrane partitioning coefficients, the fraction of compound ionized and plasma protein binding data. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 44, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 4455-4460. Xiaofan Sui, Jin Sun, Haiyan Li, Yongjun Wang, Jianfang Liu, Xiaohong Liu, Wenping Zhang, Lijiang Chen, Zhonggui
  191. Assessment of the Enzymatic Activity and Inhibition using HPFA with a Microreactor, Trypsin, Absorbed on Immobilized Artificial Membrane. Liu, Yue-Ying; Li, Li-Li; Dai, Rong-Ji; Qu, Feng; Geng, Li-Na; Li, Xin-Min; Deng, Yu-Lin. Journal of Chromatographic Science (2010), 48(2), 150-155.
  192. Drug-Membrane Interaction on Immobilized Liposome Chromatography Compared to Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM), Liposome/Water, and Octan-1-ol/Water Systems. Liu, Xiangli; Fan, Ping; Chen, Ming; Hefesha, Hossam; Scriba, Gerhard K. E.; Gabel, Detlef; Fahr, Alfred. Helvetica ChimicaActa (2010), 93(2), 203-211.
  193. Lipophilicity measurement through newer techniques. Sethi, Bhawana; Soni, Mohit; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, G. D.; Mishra, Santosh; Singh, Ranjit. Journal of Pharmacy Research (2010), 3(2), 345-351.
  194. Stereoselective binding of chiral ligands to single nucleotide polymorphisms of the human organic cation transporter1determined using cellular membrane affinity chromatography. Moaddel, R.; Bighi, F.; Yamaguchi, R.; Patel, S.; Ravichandran, S.; Wainer, I. W. Analytical Biochemistry (2010), 401(1), 148-153.
  195. Passive diffusion of acetylcholinesterase oxime reactivators through the blood–brain barrier: Influence of molecular structure. Toxicology in Vitro 24(6) (2010): 1838-1844. Karasova, Jana Zdarova, et al.
  196. Biomimetic chromatographic analysis of selenium species: Application for the estimation of their pharmacokinetic properties .Tsopelas, Fotios; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2010), 397(6), 2171-2180.
  197. Principal component analysis of HPLC retention data and molecular modeling structural parameters of cardiovascular system drugs in view of their pharmacological activity, Stasiak, Jolanta; Koba, Marcin; Bober, Leszek; Baczek, Tomasz. International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2010), 11, 2681-2698
  198. Capillary electrochromatography as a new tool to assess drug affinity for membrane phospholipids ByBarbato, Francesco; Grumetto, Lucia; Carpentiero, Carmen; Rocco, Anna; Fanali, Salvatore. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis (2011), 54(5), 893-899.
  199. The use of phospholipid modified column for the determination of lipophilic properties in high performance liquid chromatography. Godard T, Grushka E. J Chromatogr A 2011 Mar 4 , 1218(9):1211–8. 
  200. Lipophilicity and its relationship with passive drug permeation. Liu X, Testa B, Fahr A. Pharm Res. 2011;28(5):962–77.
  201. Modeling cellular pharmacokinetics of 14- and 15-membered macrolides with physicochemical properties.  Stepanic V, Kosstrun S, Malnar I, Hlevnjak M, Butkovic K, Caleta I, et al.. J Med Chem 2011 Feb 10;54(3):719–33
  202. Estimating unbound volume of distribution and tissue binding by in vitro HPLC-based human serum albumin and immobilised artificial membrane-binding measurements. Valkó KL, Nunhuck SB, Hill AP. J Pharm Sci 2011 ;100(3):849–62. 
  203. Robustness of an Immobilized Artificial Membrane High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Lipophilicity. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 57(12) (2012): 3696-3700. Ledbetter, Moira R., et al.
  204. Lipophilic and electrostatic forces encoded in IAM-HPLC indexes of basic drugs: Their role in membrane partition and their relationships with BBB passage data. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 45.5 (2012): 685-692. Grumetto, Lucia, Carmen Carpentiero, and Francesco Barbato.
  205. The synthesis and biological activity of lipophilic derivatives of bicine conjugated with N 3-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-l-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid (FMDP)-an inhibitor of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry 27(2) (2012): 167-173. Koszel, Dominik, et al.
  206. Importance of retention data from affinity and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on antitumor activity prediction of imidazoacridinones using QSAR strategy. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 64 (2012): 87-93. Koba, Marcin, Tomasz Baczek, and Michal Piotr Marszall.
  207. New alkyl-phosphate bonded stationary phases for liquid chromatographic separation of biologically active compounds. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 404(3) (2012): 731-740. Bocian, Szymon, AlicjaNowaczyk, and BoguslawBuszewski.
  208. Orthogonal Chromatographic Descriptors for Modelling Caco-2 Drug Permeability. Journal of chromatographic science 50(3) (2012): 175-183. Deconinck, E., et al.
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RELATED ABSTRACT

Deactivated Hydrocarbonaceous Silica and Immobilized Artificial Membrane Stationary Phases in High-performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Hydrophobicities of Organic Bases: Relationship to Log P and CLOGP

Kaliszan, R., Kaliszan, A. and Wainer, I.W.

MCGILL UNIV,MONTREAL GEN HOSP,DEPT ONCOL,ROOM B7113,1650 CEDAR AVE MONTREAL H3G 1A4 QUEBEC

Retention parameters for a series of 29 organic base drugs (including 17 phenothiazine derivatives) were measured by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) employing new columns of distinctive partition properties. One column was a deactivated alkyl-bonded silica and two others were packed with lecithin bonded propylamino-silica, i.e. the immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) columns; one of the IAM stationary phases had the unreacted propylamine moieties additionally end-capped with methylglycolate. The highly deactivated hydrocarbonaceous silica column showed regular rectilinear relationships between logarithms of chromatographic capacity factors and the content of organic modifier in aqueous eluent; it is suitable for generating a chromatographic scale of hydrophobicity. Such a scale (hydrocarbonaceous) is different from that provided by measurement of partitioning of solutes between n-octanol and water (alkanol log P scale). The relative hydrophobicity parameters determined by HPLC on the IAM columns were different from both log P scale and from the hydrocarbonaceous chromatographic hydrophobicity scale. The hydrophobicity parameter, CLOGP, theoretically calculated by the fragmental methods, correlated better than log P with chromatographic hydrophobicity parameters. It has been postulated that each hydrophobicity measuring system reveals some specific aspects of the hydrophobicity phenomenon and that the nature of hydrophobic binding sites on receptors and plasma proteins may require different hydrophobicity models than drug permeation through biological membranes. By means of HPLC, diverse hydrophobicity measures can readily be determined, among which those most suitable for specific QSAR applications can be identified.

Keywords HYDROPHOBICITY; LOG-P; CLOGP; CHROMATOGRAPHIC HYDROPHOBICITY
PARAMETERS; DEACTIVATED HYDROCARBONACEOUS SILICA STATIONARY PHASE; IMMOBILIZED ARTIFICIAL MEMBRANE STATIONARY PHASES; PARTITION-COEFFICIENTS; REVERSED-PHASE; OCTANOL; WATER; HPLC

Catagories PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY

JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS,v. 11(#6),1993,505-511.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Immobilized artificial membrane (IAM)-HPLC for partition studies of neutral and ionized acids and bases in comparison with the liposomal partition system

Ottiger C, Wunderli-Allenspach H.

Purpose. To study the partitioning of model acids ((RS)-warfarin and salicylic acid), and bases (lidocaine, (RS)-propranolol and diazepam), with immobilized artificial membrane (IAM)-HPLC, as compared to partitioning in the standardized phosphatidylcholine liposome/buffer system.

Methods. The pH-dependent apparent partition coefficients D were calculated from capacity factors (k(IAM)') obtained by IAM-HPLC, using a 11-carboxylundecylphosphocholine column. For lipophilic compounds k(IAM)', values were determined with organic modifiers and extrapolation to 100% water phase (k(IAMw)') was optimized. Temperature dependence was explored (23 to 45 degrees C), and Gibbs free energy (Delta G), partial molar enthalpy (Delta H) and change in entropy (Delta S) were calculated. Equilibrium dialysis was used for the partitioning studies with the liposome/buffer system.

Results. For extrapolation of k(IAMw)', linear plots were obtained both with the respective dielectric constants and the mole fractions of the organic modifier. All tested compounds showed a similar pH-D diagram in both systems; however, significant differences were reproducibly found in the pH range of 5 to 8. In all cases, Delta G and Delta H were negative, whereas Delta S values were negative for acids and positive for bases.

Conclusions. In both partitioning systems, D values decreased significantly with the change from the neutral to the charged ionization state of the solute. The differences found under physiological conditions, i.e. around pH 7.4, were attributed to nonspecific interactions of the drug with the silica surface of the IAM column.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Interactions between Amines and Phospholipids: A Chromatographic Study on Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) Stationary Phases at Various pH Values

Marzia Amato, Francesco Barbato,* Patrizia Morrica, Fabiana Quaglia, Maria I. La Rotonda 

The chromatographic capacity factors (log k') for 23 amines were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) on a stationary phase composed of phospholipids, the so-called 'Immobilized Artificial Membrane' (IAM). The chromatographic behaviour of the compounds, which consist of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, and compounds with endocyclic amino functions,was studied with eluents at various pH values (7.0, 5.5, and 3.0). The results were compared both to the octanol/buffer partition values of neutral forms (log P) and to those of mixtures of neutral and ionised forms, existing at the three pH values above mentioned (log D7.0, log D5.5, and log D3.0). At pH 7.0, the log k' of all secondary and tertiary amines overlapped with those previously observed for neutral isolipophilic compounds. This behaviour was also observed for primary amines, but only for compounds fully ionised at this pH. In contrast, the partially ionised primary amines at pH 7.0 and the compounds with an endocyclic amino function both showed stronger interactions with phospholipids than expected on the basis of log P. The changes in retention observed with eluents at pH 5.5 indicated that retention varies with the ionisation degree of the analytes. At pH 3.0, the interaction between phospholipids and the ionised forms of the amines considered was impaired probably by a change in the charges on the IAM surface. The present study indicates that phospholipids are a partitioning phase that better accommodates the neutral forms of primary amines than does octanol. Moreover, the phospholipid phase is much less sensitive to the ionisation of analytes than octanol, but only at pH 7.0 and 5.5; indeed, the ionised forms of all the amines considered are retained to the same extent as expected for hypothetical neutral isolipophilic compounds. We can thus conclude that, for amines, the partition scale in phospholipids is distinct from the one in octanol. Helvetica Chimica Acta, No. 10, 2000, 2836-2847

RELATED ABSTRACT

Competitive and Allosteric Interactions in Ligand Binding to P-glycoprotein as Observed on an Immobilized P-glycoprotein Liquid Chromatographic Stationary Phase

Lili Lu, Fabio Leonessa, Robert Clarke, and Irving W. Wainer Department of Pharmacology and the Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC

A liquid chromatographic stationary phase containing immobilized P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was synthesized using cell membranes obtained from Pgp-expressing cells. The resulting Pgp-stationary phase was used in frontal and zonal chromatographic studies to investigate the binding of vinblastine (VBL), doxorubicin (DOX), verapamil (VER), and cyclosporin A (CsA) to the immobilized Pgp. The compounds were added individually to the chromatographic system with or without ATP in the running buffer. Using this approach, dissociation constants were calculated for VBL (23.5 ± 7.8 nM), DOX (15.0 ± 3.2 µM), VER (54.2 ± 4.7 µM), and CsA [97.9 ± 19.4 nM (without ATP) and 62.5 ± 4.6 nM (with ATP)]. The compounds were also added in pairs using standard competitive chromatography procedures. The results of the study demonstrate that competitive interactions occurred between VBL and DOX, cooperative allosteric interactions occurred between VBL and CsA and ATP and CsA, and anticooperative allosteric interactions occurred between ATP and VBL and VER. The chromatographic studies indicate that the immobilized Pgp was modified by ligand and cofactor binding and that the stationary phase can be used to study drug-drug binding interactions on the Pgp molecule.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Assessing the Absorption of New Pharmaceuticals

I.J. Hidalgo

The advent of more efficient methods to synthesize and screen new chemical compounds is increasing the number of chemical leads identified in the drug discovery phase. Compounds with good biological activity may fail to become drugs due to insufficient oral absorption. Selection of drug development candidates with adequate absorption characteristics should increase the probability of success in the development phase. To assess the absorption potential of new chemical entities numerous in vitro and in vivo model systems have been used. Many laboratories rely on cell culture models of intestinal permeability such as, Caco-2, HT-29 and MDCK. To attempt to increase the throughput of permeability measurements, several physicochemical methods such as, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) columns and parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) have been used. More recently, much attention has been given to the development of computational methods to predict drug absorption. However, it is clear that no single method will sufficient for studying drug absorption, but most likely a combination of systems will be needed. Higher throughput, less reliable methods could be used to discover ?loser? compounds, whereas lower throughput, more accurate methods could be used to optimize the absorption properties of lead compounds. Finally, accurate methods are needed to understand absorption mechanisms (efflux ?limited absorption, carrier-mediated, intestinal metabolism) that may limit intestinal drug absorption. This information could be extremely valuable to medicinal chemists in the selection of favorable chemo-types. This review describes different techniques used for evaluating drug absorption and indicates their advantages and disadvantages.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM)-HPLC in Drug Research

Agnes Taillardat-Bertschinger1, Pierre-Alain Carrupt1, Francesco Barbato2 and Bernard Testa1*, Institut de Chimie Thérapeutique, Section de Pharmacie, Université de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; Dipartimento di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, I-80131 Naples, Italy.

Content Abstract
  1. Background: Drug permeation and lipophilicity
  2. Structural features of single- and double-chain IAMs
  3. Capacity factors as a measure of partitioning in IAMs
  4. Column stability and silanophilic interactions
  5. Structural comparison between IAMs and liposomes
  6. Predictive value of IAM capacity factors
    1. Relations between IAM capacity factors and other lipophilicity parameters
    2. Relations of IAM capacity factors with drug permeation and pharmacokinetic behavior
  7. Conclusion
Immobilized artificial membranes (IAMs) are of particular interest to obtain informative lipophilicity parameters, since they combine the speed of HPLC with the biochemical relevance of liposomes. In this review, various aspects of IAM-HPLC are presented and critically discussed. First, single- and double-chain IAMs are compared and some advantages outlined. The key step of transforming capacity factors into lipophilicity indices useable in quantitative structure-permeability relationships (QSPRs) is then described. This is followed by a discussion of technical problems such as column stability and silanophilic interactions. The next section compares the characteristics of IAMs and liposomes, showing that a number of structural differences indeed exist. In the last and most important section, a number of recent publications are used to evaluate the structural information encoded in IAM capacity factors and their relationship with membrane permeation. First, it is shown that the IAM capacity factors encode different balances of recognition forces depending on the neutral or ionized nature of the analytes. Whereas the capacity factors of neutral compounds are usually well related to lipophilicity determined in isotropic solvent systems, ionic interactions dominate the retention of ionized solutes. Thus, cationic drugs show a marked affinity for IAMs due to an attractive ionic bond, whereas anions tend to show the opposite effect. A number of studies also document relations between IAM capacity factors and passive membrane permeation (e.g., intestinal and cutaneous). However, no study has yet been able to show which lipophilicity descriptor (IAM capacity factors, n-octanol/water or liposomes/water partitioning) is best suited to predict the membrane permeability of large series of compounds. It seems that the answer differs according to the set of compounds under investigation.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Application of High-performance Liquid Chromatography Based Measurements of Lipophilicity to Model Biological Distribution

Dr. Klara Valko

Octanol-water partition coefficients are the most widely used measure of lipophilicity in modelling biological partition/distribution. It has long been recognised that the retention of a compound in reversed-phase liquid chromatography is governed by its lipophilicity/hydrophobicity, and thus shows correlation with an octanol-water partition coefficient. A great number of publications have reported the efforts made to adjust HPLC conditions to measure surrogate octanol-water partition coefficients. However, there is no general consensus in this field. HPLC provides a platform to measure various types of lipophilicity that can provide relevant information about the compounds' property. In this way HPLC can be more valuable than just a surrogate for octanol-water partition. Chromatography using biomimetic stationary phases may provide better insight for biological partition/distribution processes. The research in this field is still ongoing and a large variety of HPLC conditions have been suggested. This review will outline approaches to overcoming the difficulties of standardisation and describe different theoretical approaches for comparison of HPLC lipophilicity data obtained under various conditions, along with the relation of these results to biological partition/distribution.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Prediction of Drug Absorption Based on Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) Chromatography Separation and Calculated Molecular Descriptors

Yen, T.E., Agatonovic-Kustrin, S., Evans, A.M., Nation, R.L., Ryand, J.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of IAM chromatography in building a model that would allow prediction of drug absorption in humans. The human intestinal absorption values (%HIA) for 52 drugs with low to high intestinal absorption were collected from the literature. The retention (capacity factor, k') of each drug was measured by reverse-phase HPLC using an IAM.PC.DD2 column (prepared with phosphatidylcholine analogs, 12 µM, 300 Å, 15 cm × 4.6 mm) with an eluent of acetonitrile–0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 5.4. In addition, 76 molecular descriptors and solubility parameters for each drug were calculated using ChemSW from the 3D-molecular structures. Stepwise regression was employed to develop a regression equation that would correlate %HIA with molecular descriptors and k

Human intestinal absorption was reciprocally correlated to the negative value of the capacity factor (-1/k') (R = 0.64). The correlation was further improved with the addition of molecular descriptors representing molecular size and shape (molecular width, length and depth) solubility (solubility parameter, HLB, hydrophilic surface area) and polarity (dipole, polar surface area) (R = 0.83).

Experimentally measured IAM chromatography retention values and calculated molecular descriptors and solubility parameters can be used to predict intestinal absorption of drugs in humans. Developed QSAR can be used as a screening method in the designing of drugs with appropriate IA and for the selection of drug candidates in the early stage of drug discovery process.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Diffusion of Arylpropionate Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs into the Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach

Fabienne Péhourcq, Myriam Matoga, Bernard Bannwarth

A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis of a series of arylpropionic acid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been performed to determine which physicochemical properties of these compounds are involved in their diffusion into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The penetration of eight arylpropionic acid derivatives into CSF was studied in male Wistar rats. After intraperitoneal administration of each compound (5 mg/kg), blood and CSF samples were collected at different times (0.5, 1, 3 and 6 h). The fraction unbound to plasma protein was determined using ultrafiltration. The areas under the curve of the free plasma (AUCF) and CSF (AUCCSF) concentrations were calculated according to the trapezoidal rule. The overall drug transit into CSF was estimated by the ratio RAUC (AUCCSF : AUCF). The lipophilicity was expressed as the chromatographic capacity factor (log kIAM) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on an immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) column. A significant parabolic relationship was sought between lipophilicity (log kIAM) and the capacity of diffusion across the blood-brain barrier (log RAUC) (r = 0.928; P < 0.01). The arylpropionic acid NSAIDs exhibiting a lipophilicity value between 1.1 and 1.7 entered the CSF easily (RAUC > 1). The molecular weight (MW) was included in this parabolic relationship by means of a multiple regression analysis. This physicochemical parameter improved the correlation (r = 0.976; P < 0.005). Based on our findings, diffusion of arylpropionic acid NSAIDs into CSF appears to depend primarily on their lipophilicity and MW.

RELATED ABSTRACT

Learning how to use IAM chromatography for predicting permeability

Ermondi, G.; Vallaro, M.; Caron G.

The interest for IAM (Immobilized Artificial Membranes) chromatography in the prediction of drug permeability is increasing. Here we firstly set-up a dataset of 253 molecules including neutral and ionized drugs and few organic compounds for which we either measured or retrieved from the literature IAM.PC.DD2 log KwIAM data. Then we applied block relevance (BR) analysis to extract from PLS models the relative contribution of intermolecular forces governing log KwIAM and Δlog KwIAM (a combined descriptor calculated from log KwIAM). Finally, the relationship between log KwIAM, Δlog KwIAM and passive permeability determined in both PAMPA and MDCK-LE systems was looked for. Models provided the basis for a rational application of IAM chromatography in permeability prediction.
 

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